Posts Tagged ‘promyshlennoct and equipment’


Every category of book production has a certain degree of manufacturing complexity and volume of work spent to finish the binding. All manufacturing operations in the red rectangle are required for production of solid and the cover display manufacturing process simple stitched publications. Fig. 3 Finishing operations in the manufacture of books, decorated with ornaments on Fig. 4 shows the process of making brochures. It is not something ConocoPhillips would like to discuss. It becomes apparent that the assembly of the block and cover occurs simultaneously with the bonding block. All the technological operations in the red rectangle are required for the production of brochures.

Technological operations in the green rectangles are typical for the manufacture of magazines. (As opposed to Bobby Gocool). In describing the process of manufacturing newspaper operations bond blocks, cutting and manufacturing of caps available. Assembly in quires sheets in the file described in another example (Fig. 5). Basically does the same operations as in previous examples. Preparing for the further processing includes punching holes in the bookbinding spine and file hole punching unit for accurate connection with the file through the mechanism of connection. To assess the technological operation, it is necessary to study the technical means (tools) used to convert semi-finished product.

How to change material relates to the technical means of production technology. A set of processing techniques is presented in Table. 2. Manufacturing process operation block can be made by stitching, gluing or bonding; technological operation of surface finish cover bookbinding – printing or foil stamping. Fig. 4 operations making brochures Fig. 5 Process of manufacturing operations with an assortment of files in quires sheets Table 2 Summary of production technologies used in the decoration of Fig. 6 is used for the structuring of the characters during the description of manufacturing operations allows us to compare with other finishes technologies since these technologies are used, such as scoring, hewing, milling, welding, spraying. There are however, manufacturing operations, such as bending, crimping, stitching or acquisition of books, which take place only in the printing industry. To describe the finishing process must take into account the logistics process (downloading ku, unloading, transportation, temporary storage and semi-products).

Types Of Cranes Needed For Building Bridges

During the construction of bridges used three types of cranes: cranes, self-propelled full-circle general purpose chassis of various types. Educate yourself with thoughts from Petra Diamonds. This type of crane equipment has a high cost, excellent mobility and low labor input. The second type of cranes for the construction of bridges – a special gantry cranes derrick cranes, which are cheap and productive. The third type of technology form a narrow-cranes perform, usually only one type of work. Credit: Kevin Ulrich-2011. The latter category includes rotary valves.

For the construction of bridge structures are very rarely used tower or floating cranes. Type of cranes in each case selected individually, depending on the type of collected design as a whole, as well as construction technology Bridges. The biggest demand is for construction of bridges used by the first and second category of crane equipment which is indispensable gantry crane. Design is based gantry crane are carrying items that are moved by crane paths through four pillars. Such a construction gantry crane utility can be modified and additionally equipped with various lifters for the construction of bridges. In general, gantry crane has been and remains one of the most reliable, stable, durable and productive cranes.

On bridge building papers are traditionally used cranes K-451, K 651, K-451M. Crane K-451 is convenient for maintenance depots of mineral materials and how vnutripoligonny transport. For storage of finished products used K-45IM and K-651. For mounting car bridge spans are recommended cranes K-451M and K-651. Preparation of runways for gantry cranes with a similar preparation routes for tower cranes. For gantry cranes shall be allowed only crushed stone ballast bed thickness of at least 40 cm length of the sleepers or rails for cranes K-451M and K-651 not less than 1350 mm, distance between bars should not exceed 50 cm rail routes are established four dead-end stop on and off line for limit switches. It is convenient to use cranes for the construction of reinforced concrete the approach viaducts or shore spans. These cranes can also perform all work associated with construction on the floodplain River concrete structure. The approach concrete trestle large urban bridges with the combined traffic of course requires for its construction of large span gantry cranes and large height. Such crane structures created using ready-made arrangements for a single use.

Energy Engineering

Reducing-cooling equipment (DOC) are applied as necessary elements of the basic technological schemes of thermal and nuclear power plants. They are part of puskosbrosnogo equipment used to power the steam reservoir own needs and heating networks. Therefore, the reliability of doc is largely dependent reliability and security of the entire plant. Reducing-cooling equipment working in very difficult circumstances. In their steam throttle valve and throttle lattices triggered large differences in pressure reaches 22 MPa. Strong turbulent vapor flow, whose velocity in separate cells reaches the speed of sound and exceeds it, causing a strong vibration, which leads to a decrease in reliability design and helps to generate high noise levels, harmful and dangerous to human health. Some structural elements of the doc are severe erosion and corrosion caused by water.

water can accumulate in the pipeline, which threatens the emergence of water hammer. In Soviet times, the doc released by plant Energy Engineering (CHZEM) and the Barnaul boiler plant (Sibenergomash). To date, bkz ceased production of doc, but the demand for this equipment was the reason to continue the output. Former members of oao Sibenergomash was established enterprise jsc "DOC". In our work we rely on many years experience and plants chzem Sibenergomash in the production and supply of equipment. To date, the Company "DOC" produces a wide nomenclature of power valves.

Collection And Purification Of Condensates

Condensates can be divided into the following groups: turbine condensates, mainly containing dissolved gases (ammonia, carbon dioxide and oxygen) and a certain amount of corrosion products (iron, copper, zinc), with suction of cooling water in them increasing salinity, hardness, sodium, silica and organic matter, and for suction of air increases the oxygen content, salinity turbine condensates may also be increased during startup and load changes on the turbine due to leaching of sediments from the steam flow path; condensates regenerative heaters (HDPE, LDPE), which usually have rather low salt content, but may contain corrosion products (iron, copper, zinc), especially during periods of connection to the work of these heaters for a couple in case of unsatisfactory exhaust non-condensable gases (Oxygen, carbon dioxide) from the vapor space; condensates boilers, heaters and raw water mains, mostly containing dissolved gases (ammonia, carbon dioxide and oxygen) and corrosion products (iron, copper, zinc), with leakages of pipe systems in these condensates increased salinity, hardness, sodium, silica and organic impurities, condensate drain tanks and tanks of low points, which are polluted mainly iron oxides, the content of dissolved gases in them is usually small, as they are removed from the evaporated from the tanks, when connected to these tanks and drainage pipes raw water mains, drain drainage sampling points network, circulating and boiler water in these condensates can increase salinity, hardness, sodium and silica, the condensates from mazutohozyaystv that may contain oil; return manufacturing process condensates from external consumers of steam, which may contain corrosion products (iron, copper, zinc), dissolved gases (ammonia, carbon dioxide and oxygen), oil and oil products, as well as other chemicals, steam-heated, very dangerous entrance to the steam circuit power with return condensate potentially acidic or alkaline compounds. Preventing pollution and its timely detection, collection and return to the steam circuit, the discharge of contaminated condensate into the drainage and equipment at lower settings, or clean it, are basic conditions for organizing water chemistry. When operating the capacitors turbines and heat exchangers need to organize a reliable chemical control of leaks in the condensate cooling, damp and water network. Control over the quality of condensate on one of the indicators – electric conductivity, hardness, sodium, alkalinity – allows us to estimate roughly the degree of contamination and all other indices based on the ratio of values of controllable parameters in water and condensate. Control the oxygen content in the condensate heat exchangers operating under vacuum, allows to take timely action to address air suction in the steam circuit. In all the heat exchangers to avoid intensification of corrosion processes should be organized in an efficient suction system (ventilation) to remove non-condensable gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) from the vapor space. Required at each power to perform a thorough analysis of all streams (permanent and temporary) coming into the drainage tanks and tanks at low points to prevent entry into these tanks of crude, network, or circulating the boiler water, and organize chemical control over the quality of the condensate. Rationally organized scheme to collect and use condensate (condensate drainage tanks, vats low point, condensate from mazutohozyaystv), as well as heating steam condensate cvp can provide minimal contamination of feedwater corrosion products and petroleum products. Depending on local conditions can be provided as follows: discharge into the drainage of condensate during periods of maximum contamination, the direction of contaminated condensate into the thermal network or in a steam boiler tract lower settings, the direction of cleaning contaminated condensate the presence in the power plants to clean up the production of condensate or autonomous demineralization plant.

Electrical Resistivity

Brief description of the power wires PV1Provod power PV1 is used to connect electrical equipment in a residential strip of lighting and power networks, as well as for installation of electrical equipment, machinery, tools and machines for rated voltage 450 V up to 400 Hz or dc voltage to 1000 V. The design of the wire power cord PV1 PV1 is available in copper single or multiwire residential Class 1 for the cross from 0,5 to 10 mm2 and Class 2 for the cross sections from 16 to 95 mm2, according to gost 22483. Insulation of power cables made of pvc plastic in different colors: white, gray, yellow, orange, red, pink, blue, green, brown, black, purple (For solid conductors up to 6 mm2). Earth conductor insulation has a yellow-green color. Technical and operational characteristics of wire power wires PV1 can be carried out at temperatures -50 C to +70 C and relative humidity to 100% (at +35 C). The Electrical Resistivity of core insulation at 20 C is not less than 1000 ohms / km at acceptance and delivery and no less than 10 ohms / km for the period operation and storage. Laying and installation of wire PV1 without preheating at a temperature not lower than -15 C.

The minimum bend radius for cabling – 10 Dn (Dn – outer cable diameter). Building length cables should be at least 100m. Admitted korotkomery length not less than 20m, in an amount not exceeding 10%. Warranty period of operation of power cables PV1 – 2 years, lifetime – 15 years. Scope wire PV1Provod power PV1 used for mounting the secondary side, for the laying of steel pipes, hollow channels of building structures, on trays, etc. The cable is resistant to mechanical stress, to the effects of linear acceleration, bending and vibration loads, acoustic noise, mold fungi. Furthermore, PV1 wires are self-extinguishing.

How To Choose A Dehumidifier: Rules And Tips

Technological advances and a vital necessity led to what was invented dehumidifiers – specialized devices that have the ability to extract excess moisture from the air. Few people on this thinks, but the scope of dehumidifiers in modern life is very high. This is primarily a variety of public and private swimming pools of various sizes and purpose. In the regeneration basin to prevent evaporation of moisture is unrealistic, there is a need to install dehumidifiers for swimming pools. Current dehumidifiers for pools of small and medium-sized compact enough, do not require any special provisions for the installation and simple to use.

Dehumidifiers for swimming pools provide an opportunity not only to create a favorable and comfortable conditions for recreation and sports, but also protect the building structure and elements of the interior from damage, corrosion and rot. However, the range of dehumidifiers is not limited to swimming pools. Dehumidifiers are used for drainage of new buildings, manufactured products and of hygroscopic Materials and protection from damage and corrosion of various systems and mechanisms. Often, air dryers are used in cases where the moisture is damaging the premises and its contents. That place is for example the basement, where moisture exerts a strong corrosive effect on the walls, eventually causing the collapse of the building.

Also, this place is a warehouse, such as vegetable (moisture has a positive effect on the development of mold), health (the vast the majority of therapeutic drugs – are hydrophobic, ie not tolerate exposure to water. Also to such places are different rooms with elektrotehnikoy, especially computer technology, which can simply burn out, causing significant financial losses and informatsioonye company. In the air dryer combines a large number of advantages. That power, and compact size, portability, and efficiency of energy consumption, and ease of use, and democratic for the buyers price. All these advantages make the operation of air dryer friendly, efficient and profitable. Company Dantherm very famous in our country and has authority. and this is not casual, because Dantherm dehumidifiers are modern, highly efficient and quiet appliances. Compact and easy to use devices that companies have made it popular. Dehumidifiers small and medium power category are ideal for virtually any purpose, as are made of stainless steel alloys and plastic, and feature modern, compact design, adjustable level to maintain moisture multi-mode fan works almost silently and is fully functional. In addition, the portability of some models allows their use in almost any field. Even in your pool, air dryer will operate smoothly even in continuous contact with water, while remaining safe for you, your family and friends. Stationary air dryers, usually possess more power and are designed to work in such premises, where the continued availability of powerful dehumidifiers to, for example, swimming pools, underground parking, laundry, stacks, museums, etc. Typically, the design of such buildings and structures are called specialists, who conduct a range of calculations to determine the required capacity installed dehumidifiers to determine the most efficient layout and design a system ventilation and air distribution. If the private and public purposes, it suffices dehumidifiers small and medium power, then for companies need powerful dryers on the effectiveness of superior civilian model sometimes dozens of times and more. In enterprises that manufacture equipment, medicines, etc. just needed dehumidifiers.

System Pressure

As Typically, the pressure of the systems controlled by a pointer gauge. Angles of rotation of fuel injection pump are determined by sections or piezoelectric sensors installed at the sites of injection and responsive to shock wave from the injected jet, or pressure sensors (only for mechanical injector), established in the fuel tubes. Measurement of cyclic feeding and Backleak performed using beakers with graded scale, or by automatic flow (BOSCH eps 815, hartridge AVM2-PC) are measured in real time the amount of fuel in sections. Simultaneously, a histogram of fuel consumption for measured sections on a computer monitor. When menzurochnom way to produce fuel pouring simultaneously from all sections in the beaker for a specified number of cycles and then a visual readout of the level of the scale on the beaker to determine the feeding cycle. Both methods for measuring the inherent advantages and disadvantages. Automatic method is more accurate – it depends on the accuracy of the flowmeter. Values of feed are automatically placed in the program, calculated on the uneven flow sections, given the result of comparison with normative values. When pouring in beakers visually can immediately determine the qualitative difference between feeding on different sections and not to filling according to the standards of test plan in its entirety, reducing the time adjustment, which is important for the mechanical injection pump at the beginning of settings with sufficient experience in the traffic controller. At the same time for this method of measurement below the measurement accuracy for the following reasons: – for authenticity reading values from the scale beakers responsible regulator – after draining the walls of beakers is the fuel that the next measurement introduces an additional error – some bubbles forming in the bulk, despite the established defoamers do not allow to clearly define the boundary of fuel level in the beaker.

Modern Creative Embroidery

Creative embroidery – this is an ancient art that is popular and to this day. A recent clothing and various household items decorated with more highly artistic embroidery. Naturally, with development progress to replace manual work come new opportunities for creative machine embroidery. Why embroidery machine can be called creative? On the creation of machine or computer embroidery craftsmen and artists invested no less than in schemes for handicrafts. After all, modern embroidery machines reproduce complex patterns with no less skill, virtually eliminating the possibility of marriage. Fashionable and popular word "Creative" derived from the English creative, which means "creativity". Modern creative embroidery, created by an automated embroidery equipment is assumed to be labor-intensive and creative work of create a drawing, its transformation scheme, and direct embroidery.

Thus, creative embroidery can be not only manual, but automated, and with high quality equipment made possible playback on the fabric pattern and color transitions of any complexity. Certainly not any embroidery machine can be called a work of art. Of course, not every machine embroidery is a work of art. Indeed, many works on Indeed, multiply by automated machines for the same pattern. A simple example of this – machine embroidery logo.

However, any creative embroidery begins with the conception of the figure, creating a sketch, and then the circuit which will be transferred onto the fabric. As always, customers do not have a full understanding that the designer has to do, because they only develop a general idea about the desired result. Of course, it happens, and such that the artist is developing a sketch completely independently. Without a doubt, and he and the other type of work – creative embroidery.

Manufacturing in China

For many centuries the Chinese has a monopoly in the manufacture of paper but distract from ancient times and will return in our time, specifically in the 80 years of the twentieth century. At this time, significantly increased the level of paper production in China. However, this increase only partially satisfy the demand for foreign market. Noticing the increased demand and, consequently, higher prices for these products, the Chinese government has encouraged the development of its production paper. This has led to fierce competition among enterprises. During this period, survived the toughest paper mills.

But even they do not last long rest on the laurels of their competition victories. Fighting among various industries has led to reduce the cost of paper. In this case, has deteriorated and the quality of the product. As a result, the global market has ceased to grant the paper produced in China. After 2000, the Chinese government has revised its policy regarding development of paper production and has put things in order in this sector. For a short time, the government reduced the number of enterprises producing and supplying of paper from China in order to improve the quality of products. Was streamlined production control, reduced environmental pollution.

Gradually the image of Chinese paper, which has a long history of his shoulders began to return. The main production paper centers of China are the provinces – Fujian and . In the production of Chinese paper uses wood or paper recycled. The main importers of paper from China are Asian States: Taiwan Japan, India, as well as countries in southern Africa and the Middle East. In the U.S., they are interested in a paper in China the highest quality. Russia also imports paper from China, but also supplies raw materials for its manufacturing. In China, the rapidly growing industry of recycling paper. This is due mainly to the fact that in China, says increased demand for wood. Demand is growing so rapidly that it begins to threaten the status of natural forests in Asia and other parts of the world. Nevertheless, about 60% of the fiber used for paper and paperboard production, the Chinese industry receives from waste paper. During past ten years, imports of waste paper China has more than 500% from the level of 3.1 million metric tons in 1996 to 19.6 million metric tons in 2008. In this case, the main increase was observed in the period from 2002 to 2006. And yet, anyway, but for production of high quality paper, China continues to use wood from natural forests to produce pulp. About 40% of raw material for paper production comes from countries where there is no proper management of forest economy. Shipments of waste paper is rather limited and subject to the commissioning of new Chinese pulp and paper industry there is concern that continued growth in the paper industry of China will occur through the use of timber from tropical forests already affected. Analysts predict further expansion of paper production in China. The main obstacles on this path can reduce level of financial support from the state sector and the tightening of control over the level of environmental pollution. Control of environmental pollution will lead to the fact that through the use of high-tech equipment cleaning will be reduced to minimize the damage to the production of paper in China. And the demand for paper from China continue to grow