History XX Main article: History of the Caribbean Sea Tulum, a Mayan city on the Caribbean coast of Quintana Roo (Mexico). Columbus’ arrival to the Spanish in 1492. Walls in Cartagena de Indias (Colombia). The first inhabitants of Caribbean islands were the Taino tribe settled with religious beliefs that political and notable for being good farmers, fishermen and potters, its language derives from the Arawak family, which proceeded, migrating from South America approximately 3000 years ago. At the time of discovery, the Caribs, who were noted for their skills as sailors and warriors, predominantly occupied the region from the banks of the Orinoco River, and were in full conquest of the territories Tainos.In his early accounts, the Europeans also claimed that the Caribs ate human flesh, idea that has been recorded in the word cannibal. The Caribbean Sea was an unknown body of water for Europe and Asia until 1492, when Christopher Columbus first sailed trying to find a route to India. After the discovery of the islands, the area was quickly colonized by Western civilization, becoming commonplace for European trade routes and eventually appeal to piracy.The Dominica Catholic Monarchs in 1495 allowed all his subjects manning ships to the Indies, newly discovered, which caused many vessels were thrown into the Atlantic without the proper preparation, being easy prey for the “wolves of the sea.” On the coasts Caribbean during this time were developing some of the most famous trade fairs, such as Portobello, which lasted 40 days, where people produce constant attacks by pirates, so the Spanish built near her Fort St Lawrence in the late sixteenth century. The same problem occurred in other Caribbean ports such as Cartagena de Indias and Havana, where paths were built military defenses, work for which they were transported large groups of African slaves to the region .Shortly after its discovery and occupation by Spain, the sea drew the attention of English and French crowns, which experienced sailors sent to conquer territories and successfully took the islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe to France, Antigua, Montserrat Barbados and Jamaica to England, this being the most important possessions lost the Spanish Empire in the Caribbean. In 1625 was formed on the island of Tortuga a base where pirates and buccaneers of both nationalities have joined forces to attack boats from the Spanish colonial expions departed thence to besiege the coastal cities until the late seventeenth century.Another famous pirate base was established in the Jamaican port of Port Royal in 1656, until its partial destruction by an earthquake on June 7, 1692. In the region were highly recognized and feared some names of pirates like Morgan, Lolonois and Blackbeard, among others. Starting from the nineteenth century to independence of colonized countries, although currently some possessions French, English and Netherlands remained under European administration. In its waters are 22 islands and 12 countries, Cuba being the last country to independence from Spain in 1898. In 1903, the U.S. imperial intervention, Panama seceded from Colombia and built the canal, which connects the Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean. It was inaugurated on 15 August 1914, but was administered by the United States until 31 December 1999.On 12 December 2001, the Heads of State and Government of member countries of the Association of Caribbean States, meeting in Margarita Island (Venezuela), adopted the Declaration of Margarita, “recognizing the Caribbean Sea as a common heritage in the region, and an invaluable asset for which we give priority to its preservation, “with the goal of” building a very Caribbean identity. They have committed themselves “to establish the Wider Caribbean as a Zone of Cooperation”, which “will consist initially of joint action in priority areas of the ACS, namely, Trade, Sustainable Tourism, Transport and Natural Disasters.” 13