All threats to information systems can be combined in the synthesis of three groups. 1. The threat of disclosure, the possibility that information becomes known to him to whom should not have to know it. 2. Threat to the integrity, deliberate unauthorized changes (modifying or deleting) data stored in a computer system, or transmitted from one system to another. 3.
The threat of denial of service, the possibility of blocking access to some resource computing system. Based security, depending on how their implementation can be divided into the following classes of methods: organizational methods involve configuration management, organization and administration of the system. In particular this applies to networked information systems, their operating systems, office network admin, a set of mandatory regulations governing the access and network users; technological methods, which include technologies of network administration, monitoring and auditing the security of information resources, management of electronic journals user registration, filtering and anti-virus processing of incoming information; hardware methods that implement the physical security of the system from unauthorized access, hardware identification function of peripheral terminals of the system and user modes of connecting networking components of it. etc.; programming techniques is the most common methods of information (for example, programs user identification, password protection and inspection powers, firewalls, kriptoprotokoly, etc.). Without the use of software component is practically unfeasible none, including the first three groups of methods, ie in a pure form of organizational, technological and hardware protection methods usually can not be realized, all of which contain software components. It should be borne in mind, contrary to popular opinion otherwise, that the cost of implementing many of the software system solutions for information protection significantly exceeds the costs of hardware, technology, and the more organizational decisions (of course, if we use license and not a "pirated" software).
The most attention from developers and consumers currently responsible for the following areas of information security and the corresponding software and hardware: 1. Protection against unauthorized access to information resources independently operating and network computers. The most acute problem is for servers and users' Internet and Intranet. This function is realized numerous software, hardware-software and hardware. 2. Protection of classified, confidential and personal information from being read by unauthorized persons and focused its distortion. This function is provided as a means of protection against unauthorized access, and with the help of cryptographic tools traditionally available in a separate class. 3. Protecting information systems from many computer viruses that can not only destroy information, but sometimes damage the technical components of the system: Flash bios, drives, etc., are being actively developed as a means of protection against information leakage on the supply circuits, the channels electromagnetic radiation of a computer or monitor (used screening rooms, the use of generators of noise radiation, a special selection of monitors and computer components that have the smallest radiation), protection from electronic "bugs" placed directly in the computer accessories, etc.