Posts Tagged ‘industry’

DRO Devices

The most important direction in the development of modern engineering and metalworking industries is the development of metrology. Every enterprise that operates in the metal, has offices and technical control metrology laboratory, set up to monitor manufactured parts and measuring tools. Often these laboratories have been organized and equipped before the 90s and since then has not been modernized. Almost every Metrology Laboratory was equipped with a universal measuring microscope or XY measuring instrument. Such devices were fired thousands. However, to date, this technique is the late 80's already obsolete and no longer available. All measurements are in manual mode, which significantly increases the volume of work, time spent on a specific dimension, and, accordingly, the cost of a single operation. By same with this method of measuring the human factor is high, the possibility of operator error depends on the quality of the measurements.

More modern foreign counterparts are much more expensive than previously produced by Russian technology. Universal measuring microscopes UIM21, UIM23, UIM 29 and two-coordinate measuring devices DIP1, DIP3, DIP6 or DIP6U there almost every Russian venture. Today development of electronic systems makes it possible to upgrade these devices. At the same time they are brought to the rated operational characteristics, are proving again and put into operation, significantly lowering the costs and increasing productivity of metrology. Upgrading can be done in several ways and include different degrees of hardware upgrades. To read more click here: Petra Diamonds. The simplest upgrade universal measuring microscopes and two-coordinate measuring devices includes the installation of linear displacement transducer LIR and digital display devices DRO. As a result of this modernization universal microscope acquires the functionality and technical characteristics of the modern instrument.

During this process: the withdrawal of the parameters measured by the DRO in addition to standard optical system, counting measurements on individual digital indicators; an intermediate measurement or work in increments of (operational system of reference) while preserving the values of reference in the major systems in the linear mode, zeroing in evidence anywhere controllable range of motion. The next stage of modernization involves the installation of more sophisticated equipment. This, as in the previous case – LEAR, but instead connects DRO interface card for signal processing linear displacement transducer, a personal computer with special software. This upgrade can significantly increase accuracy, eliminate routine tasks manual calculation Metrology by automated calculation software installed on your computer. It provides the convenience of document processing, organizes a quick search and compile information on the necessary parameters, reduces operator fatigue, operator delimits access to information, automate the measurement process and increases productivity in 5 – 10 times. The most advanced upgrade includes installation of video cameras. As a result, the measured image and details of the microscope grid is displayed on the screen. Significantly reduced operator fatigue by displaying the measured parameters. Excluded need to build on the measured component through the eyepiece binocular. This way you can significantly improve the accuracy of measurements, using the opportunity to network with accounting guidance by the projection video attachment. Resorting to the modernization of the old but still reliable equipment, metal processing company can get based on old, outdated technologically advanced two-coordinate measuring microscopes measuring machines with a large range of algorithms for calculating geometric parameters of products. Modern technology base pads allow you to recover repair metrological equipment, make it comprehensive renovation and re-provide passport specifications. Igor B. Rabinovich, Technical Director of Metrology Centre 'Master Service'

Electrical Code

Electrical work is the most important phase in which, in fact, performed electrical work in manufacturing. At conversion, expansion or renovation of production, above all, is de-energizing electrical installations and dismantling unnecessary, raspaechnyh boxes, distribution boards, sockets, lamps, cables and switches. Removed as cable channels and pipes, whose use in the future is not planned. Mounted new switchboards, measuring systems, the actuators are installed, running installation of lighting, you are connecting all the equipment to the mains. Installation of power equipment manufacture, so that operation of electrical machines did not cause external vibration and noise as the equipment itself and parts of the building.

Many companies also offer a parallel installation of low voltage systems – fire alarm, access control, CCTV. Take advantage of this offer – it means get rid of the need for subsequent additional pads hidden communication and focus the entire front of work (including subsequent maintenance) in the hands of one contractor. In addition, companies usually offer a good discount on installation of low voltage systems. Thus, you get a savings of time and money. Start-up operations during this stage made all the necessary settings of the installed equipment. Experts seek the contractor clear of all systems in normal mode, test the alarm of the test and the correct operation of information-measuring devices. The composition of the selection committee must include representatives of the main power service and a staff member who will be responsible for electrical equipment checked the shop or the site after its commissioning.

If necessary, enter into a contract point of re-education (teaching) employees, whose work will later be one way or another related to the operation of energy systems and low voltage systems facility installed on it. Note: Preparation of technical documentation and perform all work under the contract must be in full compliance with the regulations governing the implementation of these activities: – snip – building regulations – RB – Electrical Code – VSN – departmental instruction; – Safety – Regulation of fire protection. Electrical work in manufacturing should be carried out strictly according to the drawings, made the project organization or prepared and agreed in under the treaty, and in accordance with the working documentation provided by the manufacturers on all installed equipment and components. Sometimes an electrical work in manufacturing for a particular object requires more extensive actions than in conventional electrical sense. Install supports, excavation, removal of foundations, concrete foundations, road slabs and slabs, laying cable under the railroad tracks and highways – for all of this requires not only special equipment and extensive experience, but also the availability of licenses, the ability to design approvals respective organizations. Therefore, choosing a contractor to perform electrical work in your industrial facility, pay attention to the list of services offered. Otherwise, in the final that you can get the production of "turnkey" perfectly satisfied with electrical wiring, but without (or with major problems) to connect to a central power networks. Separate type of electrical work on production is to detect faults in electrical networks and their elimination. More than half of all customers who apply to companies offering services on the electrical industry, have serious problems related to the work of electrical networks, which decide on their own can not. These professionals would never impose the customer a complete replacement of wiring or equipment, if it really is not caused by extreme necessity. Qualified specialists are trying to understand the cause of the problem and resolve it quickly, without resorting to extreme measures, related to suspension of work and industrial enterprise, therefore, serious loss of time and large expenditures.


Some time ago I set about trying to create an Internet resource that would allow the device to study a variety of mechanisms and physical phenomena directly in the browser. In principle, these resources are services such as YouTube or Metacafe, but they have two significant drawbacks. First, the video can not be considered povertet and from different directions, and secondly, there's no way affect the state of the display system. Every time watching this video I had to suppress his desire to pull something or just change your view on the more convenient. So dissatisfaction with the status quo, as well as the presence of my skills in programming and 3D graphics inspired me to work towards developing a testing ground of existing mechanisms. Because I wanted to give the opportunity to touch the models in three dimensions, and then I called the site Touch3D.

Of the free domain was chosen, which I bought later. Then the question arose how to implement my idea in practice, because the value of an idea without practical implementation is zero. Poborozdiv endless expanses of the Internet and After trying a bunch of technologies I chose Shockwave3D. Basically it is used to create browser-based 3D toys, where interactivity is needed and serious performance. Further, it was necessary to gather information about the schemes and principles of operation of various devices and engines to turn it all into the existing 3D model. Technically literate, I somehow did not work out, so please excuse if something wrong, or better yet contact me and advise how and what to fix. Now for those who read these lines right up to, hold a brief tour of the site with a description of what awaits you when you get there. Actually I lost a lot of visitors because of my inability to bring what you need to do on the site.

Parts And Components Pipeline

Taps and fittings – a device that is installed on the pipelines, aggregates, containers and designed to control (disable, distribution, management, relief, mixing fazorazdeleniya) the flow of work media (liquid, gas, gas-liquid, powder, suspension, etc.) by changing the orifice area. Pipe and fittings is characterized by two main parameters: the nominal (nominal size) and conventional (nominal) pressure. Valves share the following types: Valves – Valves intended to cut off the flow of the working environment with a certain integrity. Safety valves – fittings designed for automatic protection of equipment and pipelines against unacceptable excess pressure through discharge of excess production environment. Control Valves – Valves intended to control parameters of the working environment by changing the flow rate. Valves – Valves, combining the functions stop and control valves. Feedback fittings – valves, designed to automatically prevent backflow of the working environment. Non-return check valves – reverse fixture, which can be carried out forced closing of valves.

Non-return valves controlled – reverse fixture, which can be carried out forcible opening, closing or restriction of the valve. Distribution and mixing valves – valves designed to distribute the flow of the working environment in certain areas or for mixing flows. Cpusknaya (drainage) tube fittings – valves, designed to clear the operating environment of the tanks (tank), piping systems. Fazorazdelitelnaya fittings – valves, designed to separate working environments that are in different phase states. The trap – hardware, removes condensation and impermeable or partially impermeable to superheated steam. Protective (Breaking) fittings – valves, designed for automatic protection of equipment and pipelines against harmful or unintended process changes the settings or the direction of flow working environment, and to mute the stream. Reduction (butterfly) valves – valves, designed to decrease (reduction) of the working pressure in the system by increasing the hydraulic resistance flow path. Control valves – valves designed to control the inflow of the working environment in the test equipment, instruments.

Device types of valves: Gate valve – the type of reinforcement, which has or locking the control element moves perpendicular to the flow of the medium. Valve (valve) – type of fixture that has a locking or control element is moved parallel to the flow of the medium. Faucet – type valve, which has a locking or regulatory element having the shape of a body of revolution or part thereof, is rotated around its own axis, arbitrarily placed in relation to the direction of flow of the working environment. Disc gate (gate, butterfly valve, water-tight valve, germoklapan) – type valve in which the locking and regulating element has a disk rotating around an axis perpendicular to or below the angle to the direction of flow of the working environment.

The Shell

One kilogram of solid PVC allocated 350 liters of gaseous hydrogen chloride, which when dissolved may give more than 2 liters of concentrated (25%) hydrochloric acid. For cable insulation use a soft polyvinyl chloride plastic compound, or a cable. This material contains 50% of various additions (plasticizers, etc.), which strongly alter the combustible properties of the polymer. Plasticizers are already beginning to evaporate at 200 C and light up. The chlorine content is reduced to about 35%, and it is not enough to prevent the spread of fire.

However, with a strong separation of hydrogen chloride solid polyvinyl chloride, removed from the source, not light and fire is extinguished. Due to temperature changes, drawn, created in the cable shafts, gases containing hydrogen chloride are carried away from the fire, penetrate the shield and hardware space and settle on the equipment. In early 1980s, requirements for fire safety cables were reduced mainly to the proliferation of combustion products along the length of cable laid singly or in bunches. To do this, the shell used cable products made of flexible PVC grades O-40, GOST 5960-72 (VVG cables, AVVG, the test compound sample length of 130 mm, 10 mm and a thickness of 2 mm is introduced into the flame of a gas or alcohol burner by keeping him in a flame at an angle of 45 ignition after the sample was pulled out of the flame should go out after not more than 30 seconds) and 30-32 PNC (PNC 40-32) (TU 1328-86).

Stainless Steel

Stainless Steel Stainless Steel – steel complex-resistant to corrosion in air and aggressive environments. In 1913, Harry Brearli (Harry Brearley), experimenting with different types and properties of alloys and found ability of steel with high chromium content to resist acid corrosion. The main alloying element of stainless steel – chromium Cr (12-20%); in addition to chrome, stainless steel contains elements related to its iron alloys (C, Si, Mn, S, P), as well as elements introduced into the steel to give it the necessary physical and mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of (Ni, Mn, Ti, Nb, Co, Mo). Resistance to corrosion of stainless steel depends on the chromium content: when it content of more than 12% of stainless steel alloys are in normal conditions and slightly aggressive media, more than 17% – corrosion resistant and more aggressive oxidizing and other media, in particular in the nitric acid strength of up to 50%. The reason for the corrosion resistance of stainless steel is mainly due to the fact that on the surface of chrome-containing parts in contact with aggressive media, a thin film of insoluble oxides, with is very important condition of the surface material, the absence of internal stresses and crystal defects.

In strong acids (sulfuric, hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, phosphoric, and mixtures thereof) used complex- alloys with high Ni and doped Mo, Cu, Si. The greatest corrosion resistance are chromium martensitic stainless steel type with a polished surface. Martensite and martensite-ferritic steel and martensitic martensitic-ferritic steels have good corrosion resistance in atmospheric conditions, slightly aggressive media (in dilute solutions of salts, acids) and have good mechanical properties. Basically they are used to products operating on the wear, as a cutting tool, particularly knives, for the elastic elements and structures in food and chemical industries that are in contact with a slightly aggressive media. This type of include steel type 30Ch13, 40Ch13, etc. These are ferritic steel used for the manufacture of products, operating in oxidizing environments (such as nitric acid), for household appliances, food, light industry and for heat exchangers in power. Ferritic chromium steels have high corrosion resistance in nitric acid, aqueous ammonia, ammonium nitrate, a mixture of nitric, phosphoric and hydrofluoric acids, and other aggressive environments.

To this species include steel 400 series. The main advantage of austenitic steels austenitic steels is their high service characteristics (Strength, ductility, corrosion resistance in most work environments) and good processability. Therefore, austenitic corrosion-resistant steel are widely used as structural material in various branches of engineering. This class includes, 300 series steel. Austenite-ferrite and austenite-martensite steel austenitic-ferritic steel. The advantage of this group of steels – high yield strength of Compared with single-phase austenitic steels, the lack of propensity for grain growth, while maintaining the two-phase structure, a lower content of nickel ostrodefitsitnogo and good weldability. Austenite-ferritic steels are widely used in various fields of modern technology, especially in chemical engineering, shipbuilding and aviation. This type of include, such as steel 08H22N6T, 08H21N6M2T, 08H18G8N2T. Austenite-martensite steel. Needs of new branches of modern techniques in corrosion-resistant steels, high strength and technological development has led to the austenite-martensite (transitional) class. This type of steel 07H16N6, 09H15N9YU, 08H17N5M3.

Lamps and Lighting

To determine the useful life of the lighting (irradiation) lamps using light-decay curves (Radiant) flow in the combustion process. In order to reduce the time trials mean burning time of lamps is defined as a burning lamp, which occupies a middle position in the order of a blown bulbs this group, such as the lamp burned-sixth, with 11 tubes in the group. Among the many different types of test tubes in, terms of service and stability we note the bench and running. Posters are held in strict installed. and controlled conditions, performance – in order to detect or monitor the effect of individual factors and environmental conditions (stability and resistance to mechanical and climatic influences, stress network, switching frequency, the cooling conditions, the provisions of combustion, etc.) on the parameters of tubes and their change in the combustion process.

An important indicator of reliability is also the probability of failure of the lamp within a given time, which is often governed by a minimum duration of combustion. The fitness of the source to the conditions of the installation by the following factors: the dividend stream of the source radiation, ie, the possibility of manufacture of tubes for various power – a necessary condition for a rational pattern of distribution of lighting systems in space radiation and the size of the luminous body, on which the the possibility of rational distribution of the light source to install and rational redistribution of the radiation flux in space, the degree of adaptation of the source to the normal elements of lighting installation allows use of standard elements, adaptation to the regime of standard power supplies universal light source, allowing its use in many areas of lighting hygienic, which is determined by the requirements relating to hygiene of view, as well as general occupational health and safety agencies of Hygiene makes claims to the stability in time of the luminous flux distribution energy spectrum and density or intensity of the radiation. General hygiene requires a security light sources in use, as well as the absence of radiation, gases or other emissions during operation of the source is harmful acting on the body. Economy. In the development of light sources, especially mass application, you must seek the highest possible all operating parameters, including the economy. The parameters of the light source and install a number of interconnected relationships, and usually can not be achieved simultaneously improving all the necessary parameters and the light source and lighting installation. For create the most advanced lighting systems should be in each case to develop an optimality criterion, taking into account the restrictions imposed, allowing quantitatively compare the fitness different light sources in certain cases, to choose the best conditions for its operation.

For light sources, the massive use of such generalizing economic criteria can serve as cost of operation, referred to one lumen hour, or other similar reduced value, and, more generally, given the costs. Given cost is called the cost of operation of the plant per unit produced product. Cost is the cost of electricity supply installation, the cost of changing lamps, replacement cost depreciation and ongoing maintenance costs of parts and installation. The optimal option would be to lowest cost of operation per lumen hour for other conditions being equal (eg, lighting, lighting quality, etc.) or, more generally, a variant with the lowest cost given

Underwater Lights

In this article we consider the latest underwater lights from St. Petersburg Dive Electronics. A unique digital control scheme for a microcontroller maintains constant brightness throughout the entire running time. In addition, these underwater lights only on the date of underwater technical lights, which have multi-level indicator of the discharge. Indicator of the three LEDs allows you to monitor battery level. Each LED in the discharge changes color from green to red. Therefore, the diver always know how much more will be enough light.

In addition, LED displays and flashlight modes: Full power – the light is continuously Energy-saving mode – all three LED indicators are flashing at the same time Automatic power-saving mode – two outer LEDs are flashing red, the middle LED is off. Emergency Mode – the average LED flashing red, the others are off. Underwater lights from this manufacturer have a few more features, "smart" control circuit monitors the battery discharge and discharge with a strong flashlight will automatically translate into power saving mode, which will allow the diver to surface using light. . In lamps used a powerful lithium-ion battery with double sealed canisters and electronic protection against short circuits and overdischarge. Lithium-ion batteries Unlike the nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal does not have a memory effect, so they can be recharged at any time, regardless of their degree of discharge. In the lamps used most effective to date LEDs. Optical systems that are installed in conjunction with LEDs provide viewing angle from 4 to 6 degrees, depending on the model lamp. To date, canister lamps can be purchased two models: Alpha-1800 with a luminous flux in 1200Lm and an angle of 6 degrees and Photon-1500 with a luminous flux in 1000Lm and angle 4 deg. All information on this underwater lamps contained in the manufacturer's website